What Is Flood Insurance? Should I Buy It?


Flood insurance protects your property against water damage caused by intense rainfall, snowmelt, and overflowing water sources. Unlike typical home insurance plans, flood damage is typically not covered.

Even a small amount of water, as little as an inch or two, can result in substantial expenses amounting to tens of thousands of dollars. It’s important to note that severe weather occurrences are becoming increasingly frequent, with floods affecting regions beyond coastal and water-adjacent areas. Hence, it is wise to contemplate the purchase of flood insurance.

Let’s delve into what flood insurance encompasses and how it operates.


What Is Flood Insurance?

Flood insurance, a form of property insurance, covers specific types of water-related damage to your home and personal belongings. The country’s primary provider of flood insurance is the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which defines flooding as excess water on typically dry land.

Flood insurance safeguards against various situations, including:

  1. Overflowing of rivers, lakes, or bays causes water to breach their banks.
  2. Storm surges resulting from hurricanes.
  3. Intense rainfall accumulates faster than it can drain.
  4. Mudflows, which are a mixture of water and debris.
  5. Infiltration of melted snow into your home.

It’s important to note that standard homeowners, condo, renters, and mobile home insurance policies typically do not cover flood damage. Therefore, if your property is susceptible to flooding, acquiring separate flood insurance coverage is necessary.


What Does Flood Insurance Cover?

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) provides two types of flood insurance: building coverage and contents coverage, each with its deductible. A deductible refers to the amount you are responsible for paying toward a claim.

Building coverage ensures the structure of your home, similar to dwelling coverage in a homeowners policy. It offers financial protection for flood damage to various components, including electrical and plumbing systems, water heaters, furnaces, foundation walls, built-in appliances, and cabinets, permanently installed carpets, detached garages, fuel and well water tanks, solar energy equipment, staircases, and window blinds. The NFIP offers building coverage up to $250,000.

Contents coverage, comparable to personal property coverage in homeowners or renters policies, compensates for damage to your belongings. Under an NFIP policy, this includes items such as clothing, furniture, electronics, original artwork (up to $2,500), curtains, washers, dryers, microwaves, portable air conditioners, and carpets installed over wood floors.


The NFIP provides coverage for your possessions on an “actual cash value” basis, meaning that your payout reflects the value of the items at the time of the flood.

For instance, if your 15-year-old recliner is irreparably damaged, your policy will reimburse you for the cost of a similar recliner of the same age and quality, not a new one. NFIP policies offer up to $100,000 of content coverage.

It’s worth noting that you can explore flood insurance options beyond the NFIP to obtain broader coverage and higher limits. Some companies, like Neptune and Chubb, offer alternative flood insurance policies. Neptune, for instance, provides building coverage up to $4 million and contents coverage up to $500,000. Similarly, Chubb offers limits of up to $15 million for both your home and belongings. These companies may also provide coverage on a replacement cost basis, allowing you to replace flood-damaged items with brand-new ones.

What Doesn’t Flood Insurance Cover?

The standard NFIP policy has certain limitations and exclusions regarding coverage. Here are some expenses that flood insurance typically does not cover:

Some water damage: The NFIP only pays for damage caused by naturally occurring floods that affect at least 2 acres and two properties. It does not cover situations like a flooded bathroom due to an overflowing bathtub, which may be covered by your homeowner’s insurance.

Damage to specific items and parts of your home: The NFIP does not cover flood damage to swimming pools, hot tubs, decks, patios, landscaping, fences, wells, valuable papers, or currency.

Most of your basements: Flood insurance coverage for basements is limited. While it may cover major appliances such as central air conditioners, water heaters, washers, and dryers, it generally does not cover furniture, electronics, finished floors, bathroom fixtures, or generators in the basement.

If you have a finished basement, exploring private flood insurance as an alternative may be worthwhile.

Living expenses during displacement: If you cannot stay home and need to move into a hotel or rent an apartment while your home is being repaired after a flood, those expenses are not typically covered by the NFIP. You would need to cover those costs yourself.

Vehicles: NFIP flood insurance does not extend to cars or other self-propelled vehicles. However, if you have comprehensive insurance on your auto policy, that coverage should pay for flood damage to your car.

Private insurers often offer more comprehensive coverage options with fewer exclusions. For example, companies like Neptune and Aon Edge may cover expenses related to temporary displacement from your home during repairs. They may also provide coverage for swimming pool repairs or cleanup.

Is Flood Insurance Required?

While flood insurance is not mandatory for everyone, certain circumstances may require its purchase. For instance, homeowners residing in high-risk flood zones often need to obtain flood insurance to secure a mortgage loan from their lenders.

Additionally, suppose you have previously received grants or flood assistance from the federal government. In that case, it is typically a requirement to have flood insurance to qualify for similar aid in the future.

You are not obligated to carry flood insurance if you do not fall into these specific categories. However, it is essential to recognize that even minor instances of flooding can result in significant financial burdens.

Just one foot of water can lead to more than $29,000 worth of damage to a 1,000-square-foot home. To estimate the potential cost of a flood based on your home’s size, you can utilize the tool provided by the NFIP.

This will give you an idea of the potential financial impact of a flood and the importance of considering flood insurance coverage.

Is My Home At Risk Of Flooding?

This type of insurance is a requirement for certain individuals, but if you’re unsure about the likelihood of your home flooding, there are resources you can use to assess the risk. The Flood Map Service Center, offered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), is useful. By entering your address, you can determine if your home falls within a Special Flood Hazard Area designated by the federal government.

Another option is the Risk Factor website, which utilizes climate change data to evaluate the risk of flooding and other potential hazards like wind, wildfires, and severe heat. If you reside in a low-risk area, you might consider weighing the cost of flood insurance against the probability of needing to file a claim. When your area has not experienced significant damage before, and you are contemplating skipping flood insurance, it’s wise to set aside funds for potential repairs.

Certain states, such as Mississippi, Alabama, and South Carolina, allow residents to establish Catastrophe Savings Accounts for emergency funds.

Contributions to these accounts and the interest they earn are not subject to state income taxes. However, it’s important to note that you may still be liable for federal income taxes on those funds, and there could be penalties imposed by the state if the money is used for purposes other than disaster repairs.

Won’t The Government Help?

While this specific insurance is not mandatory for everyone, it is crucial. Some individuals opt not to purchase this specific insurance because they believe they can rely on financial assistance from the federal government in the event of a flood. However, this assumption can lead to costly consequences.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) does offer grants when the president declares a state a major disaster area and approves individual assistance in specific counties. Nevertheless, the average amount awarded by FEMA for disaster relief is only around $5,000. This sum may fall significantly short of the funds required to rebuild and recover from the damages caused by a flood.

Another option to obtain additional financial support is to apply for a low-interest loan from the Small Business Administration. However, unlike a flood insurance payout, this loan must be repaid, adding to your financial obligations.

Therefore, it is crucial to recognize the limitations of relying solely on government assistance during a flood. Investing in flood insurance provides a more comprehensive and reliable means of protecting yourself financially against the potential devastation caused by flooding.

How Much Flood Insurance Do I Need?

Determining the appropriate coverage for your home and belongings depends on factors such as your property’s size, structure, and value. For instance, if you reside in a sprawling single-floor ranch, you may require more coverage than a two-story home where most of your possessions are out of reach of most floods.

To determine the right amount of building coverage, it is advisable to consult an insurance agent who can provide expert guidance. Additionally, conducting a home inventory is a valuable method to accurately assess your belongings’ value.

Suppose the coverage offered by the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) is insufficient for your needs. In that case, you can ask your insurance agent about excess flood insurance options to bridge the gap.

Excess insurance typically provides the same coverage as your NFIP policy but with higher limits that come into effect once you have exhausted your NFIP coverage. Private companies like Wright and SWBC offer excess flood insurance that can be considered.

Alternatively, you can explore private flood insurance providers offering higher coverage limits, bypassing the NFIP altogether. By considering these alternatives, you can obtain the coverage that best suits your requirements.

How Much Is Flood Insurance?

A federal flood insurance policy costs approximately $742 per year, per NerdWallet’s analysis. However, it’s important to note that the actual cost can vary significantly based on various factors, such as your location, the size of your home, and other relevant considerations. Therefore, depending on these factors, the specific amount you may pay for flood insurance can be either higher or lower than the average.

How It Works

It operates similarly to other insurance policies. By consistently paying your premiums, the insurance company will offer financial assistance in the event of a covered occurrence, which, in this case, is a flood.

You must contact your flood insurance provider to initiate a claim and receive a payout. Typically, this can be done by contacting the company or agent who sold you the policy. You will be required to provide relevant information, such as the date of the flood and details regarding the damage incurred.

An adjuster from the insurance company will usually visit your home to assess the property and document the extent of the damage. Their evaluation will determine the coverage provided by your policy. For instance, if you only have building coverage, the insurance company will not reimburse you for damage to personal belongings like furniture or clothing.

Once your coverage and the scope of the damage are verified by the insurance company, they will issue a payout. This financial assistance can be used to repair or replace any lost items resulting from the flood.

SEE ALSO: Is Power Outage Covered by Home Insurance?

How To Get Flood Insurance

When it comes to purchasing this kind of insurance, you have multiple options to choose from. The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) collaborates with approximately 50 insurers, which means you might be able to obtain flood insurance from the same company that provides your auto or homeowners coverage.

To purchase an NFIP policy, you must reside in one of the 22,000-plus participating communities. You can find information on participating communities to check eligibility.

If NFIP insurance is unavailable in your area, you can explore private flood insurance companies. Even if NFIP insurance is accessible, it’s worth considering private insurers as they may offer lower rates. A local independent agent can assist you in comparing different options.

It’s crucial not to wait until a hurricane approaches to secure coverage. There is typically a waiting period between purchasing flood insurance and when the coverage becomes effective. For NFIP policies, the waiting period is generally 30 days, while other policies may have shorter waiting periods of 10 to 15 days.

To potentially lower your premium, you may consider providing your insurer with an elevation certificate. This certificate states the lowest floor elevation of your home, which helps the insurer assess the flood risk. While FEMA no longer requires elevation certificates for coverage, presenting one to your insurer could positively impact your premium.

You can obtain an elevation certificate from your local floodplain manager or hire a land surveyor or engineer to assist you in acquiring one.


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